Indian Civilization

India derives its name from the Indus River, along whose fertile banks the earliest Indian civilization flourished (ca 2300 BC). Much of our limited knowledge of this civilization has come from excavations of two of its leading cities: Mohenjo – Daro and Harappa. These carefully planned cities had wide, straight streets lined with brick houses. Evidence indicates that, these cities had elaborate drainage and sewer systems, which were more advanced than those in most, modern Indian Villages. trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. From archeological evidence it is known that the Indus civilization the Aryans migrated into the Indus Valley.

The Aryans were a fair-skinned people who came from central Asia sometime after 1500 BC and subdued the non Aryan people of northwest India. Many historians believe that the Aryans were related to tribes that were invading the Near East Greece and Rome about the same time. The Aryans were herdsmen; they kept large numbers of cows and horses. Although they left behind no cities as the Indus civilization did, they did establish a new language in India – Sanskrit.

Our knowledge of  the Aryans and their influence on Indian society comes not from archaeology, but from a collection of religious literature known as the Vedas, meaning “knowledge”. Preserved in the Vedas are early traditions and religious beliefs of the Indians, which were passed down orally from one generation to the next. From Sanskrit literature, we gain insights into the Aryan  way of life, which became the basis of Indian culture and tradition.

India was the center of an ancient civilization which spreads east and south. This civilization affected the language and culture of many countries in both Europe and Asia. India founded ancient colonies in ancient Persia, Greece, and Rome as well as Spain, France and England. These countries belongs to the Indo-European race. They once had their homes in Central Asia and spoke the same language. Even now the various languages spoken in these countries are only different form of the original language. A sample would be the word ‘daughter’ which come from the Sanskrit ‘duhitr’ which means ‘to draw milk.’ It preserves the memory when Indian daughter was the little milkmaid in the primitive Indo-European household.

The Indian Civilization is older than that of the Greek and the Romans. While the savages of Europe still roams the dense forests, the Indians already had a highly developed civilization and were producing masterpieces in the arts.

The philosophy and religion of India greatly influenced both the East and West. Long before Christ lived, the Indians were already teaching the brotherhood of all peoples and the fatherhood of God. Indian culture has interesting and distinctive qualities.

Indian culture also has scientific bent. India gave the world of trigonometry, the first grammar books, the first study of phonetics, and the game of chess.

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